Beim Marktführer zum Top-Preis. Alle Termine & Tickets bei Eventim. Jetzt Tickets bei Eventim sichern und Adolescents live erleben Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis is a coronal plane spinal deformity which most commonly presents in adolescent girls from ages 10 to 18. Diagnosis is made with full-length standing PA and lateral spine radiographs. Orthobullets Team Spine - Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.
(OBQ14.38) A 16-year-old female with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoes posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation. The thoracic pedicle screws were placed using a tap 1 mm smaller than the screw diameter and a straightforward trajectory that runs parallel to the superior endplate 70% require treatment (50% bracing, 50% surgery) very few experience spontaneous resolution. can be fatal if not treated appropriately. Classification. Early onset scoliosis (EOS) early-onset scoliosis is a broader category including scoliosis in children <10 years old. It includes. infantile idiopathic scoliosis. juvenile idiopathic scoliosis Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Abstract Correct identiﬁcation of fusion levels in surgical planning for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex task. Several classiﬁcation systems and algorithms exist to assist surgeons in determining the appropriate levels to be instrumented. The Lenke classiﬁcation is the. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is relatively common. Depending on the degree and type of curvature, treatment can range from observation to invasive procedures including surgery for correction of spinal deformity and fusion. The more severe the curve, the more likely surgery is to enter the conversation between patient and physician Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis. Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis is a coronal plane spinal deformity which most commonly presents in children ages 3 years or less. Diagnosis is made with full-length PA and lateral spine radiographs. MRI studies are indicated to rule out syrinx, tumor, or tethered cord
1. Topic. Type I. DESCRIPTION. • S shaped or double curve in which both the thoracic and lumbar curve cross the midline. • Lumbar curve larger and stiffer than the thoracic curve. TREATMENT. • this type of curve is usually fuse down to L4 (via a posterior approach) or down to L3 (anterior approach) Type II Scoliosis in patients with cerebral palsy differs from idiopathic scoliosi s in that. curves are more likely to progress. (scoliosis progresses 1° to 2° per month starting at age 8 to 10 years) curve begins at earlier age. curve is a long, stiff C-shaped curve. left sided curves are not uncommon In this episode, we review the high-yield topic of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis from the Spine section
In this episode, we review multiple-choice questions related to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis from the Spine section Spine⎪Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis 21 Nov 2019 · The Orthobullets Podcast In this episode, we review the high-yield topic of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis from the Spine section conversely compression across the convexity corrects scoliosis in the frontal plane, and simultaneously decreases kyphosis in the sagittal plane thus, one may want to place the concave rod first in a typical hypo-kyphotic thoracic curve, but the convex rod first in the less common hyper-kyphotic curv
Adult Spinal Deformity is an idiopathic or degenerative condition of the adult spine leading to a deformity in the coronal or sagittal plane. Diagnosis is made with full-length spine radiographs. Treatment is a trial of nonoperative management with NSAIDs and physical therapy. Surgical deformity corrected is indicated for progressive disabling. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis falls into three main categories (observation, bracing and surgery), and is based on the risk of curve progression. In general, AIS curves progress in two ways: 1. during the rapid growth period of the patient, and 2. into adulthood if the curves are relatively large
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis, affecting approximately 2% to 4% of adolescents. STEP 1. However, their study on orthopaedics and spine surgery is limited. If the curve is small when first diagnosed, it can be observed and followed with routine X-rays and measurements Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis . 6% (293/4947) 3. Scheuerman's kyphosis . 15% (744/4947) 4. Pathologic scoliosis . 0% (19/4947) 5. Congenital scoliosis . 1% (27/4947) L 2 D Select Answer to see Preferred Response. SUBMIT RESPONSE 1 Review Tested Concept. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis 28 9: Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures 25 10: Ankylosing Spondylitis 23 11: Odontoid Fracture 22 12: Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture 18. Complications following spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be characterized as either intra-operative or post-operative. The most serious and feared complication is neurologic injury, both in the intra- and post-operative period. Other intra-operative complications include dural te Epidemiology. primary CNS tumors most common intracranially. 2-4% occur in the spine. 850-1,700 diagnosed in United States annually. Intradural Extramedullary Tumors. Epidemiology. account for 60-70% of all primary CNS spinal cord tumors. typically present with symptoms related to. central cord compression
New to Orthobullets? Join for free. ortho BULLETS. MB BULLETS Step 1 For 1st and 2nd Year Med Students. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis L 2 E 0 0% 0. 3820 SAE07HK.74 6034 Recon THA Revision E. with idiopathic scoliosis, the larger the curve, the more likely it is to progress. Thometz and Simon1 found that the rate of curve progres-sion in skeletally mature patients with CP was 0.8°/yr when the curve was <50° and 1.4°/yr when the curve was >50°. Saito et al2 showed tha
(OBQ08.169) A lateral radiograph of a 5 year-old child with no history of trauma is shown. The deformity reduces on extension radiographs. What is the most likely diagnosis MB BULLETS Step 1 For 1st and 2nd Year Med Students. MB BULLETS Step 2 & 3 For 3rd and 4th Year Med Students. ORTHO BULLETS Orthopaedic Surgeons & Provider Scoliosis Research Society Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. AIS is by far the most common type of scoliosis, affecting children between ages 10 to 18; it's found in as many as 4 in 100 adolescents
To determine if the incidence of clinically significant psychological and emotional distress in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients is higher than the general population and if this correlates with deformity severity. personal fees from Zimmer BioMet, Medtronic, Zipline Medical, Inc., Orthobullets, Grand Rounds [a healthcare. Scoliosis is a condition that causes the spine to curve sideways. There are several different types of scoliosis that affect children and adolescents. By far, the most common type is idiopathic, which means the exact cause is not known. Most cases of idiopathic scoliosis occur between age 10 and the time a child is fully grown Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common type of scoliosis in patients between the ages of 10 and 18 years. 1 Scoliosis is defined as a lateral curvature >10°. 1 Girls are 10. Orthobullets Team Spine - Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis; Listen Now 16:17 min. Spine Infections, Tumors, & Systemic Conditions. The thoracic pedicle screws were placed using a tap 1 mm smaller than the screw diameter and a straightforward trajectory that runs parallel to the superior endplate other etiologies, leading to the erroneous conclusion that all types of idiopathic sco-liosis inevitably end in disability. Late-onset idiopathic scoliosis (LIS) is a distinct entity with a unique natural history. Objective To present the outcomes related to health and function in untreated pa-tients with LIS
Introduction. The main aim of treating patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who are skeletally immature is to prevent curve progression during growth .Bracing is a commonly used treatment option initiated in adolescence to reduce the chances for adulthood curve progression .Appropriate timing of bracing before the peak height velocity has been shown to prevent curves from. To determine whether the SRS-22r (SRS-22) has a negative effect on the body image of females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) using the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Summary The SRS-22 is a validated questionnaire designed by the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) to assess outcomes of scoliosis patients Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pulmonary function tests. Recommended articles Citing articles (0) Author disclosures: GAV (none), LMA (personal fees from Biomet, Zimmer, Medtronic, NuVasive, and Orthobullets; other from Eli Lilly, Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America,. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. By far the most common form of scoliosis, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects as many as 4 out of 100 children between the ages of 10 and 18. The name for this condition comes from the age of onset (adolescence) and the fact that no single cause has been identified Introduction. The most common conservative treatment modalities for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) include observation, bracing, and exercise. 1 - 3 Previous studies have reported that bracing helps decrease curve progression in AIS patients. 3 - 7 Scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) have also gained acclaim with goals of core strengthening, symptom relief, and preventing curve.
. Instead of growing straight, the spine develops a side-to-side curvature, usually in an elongated S or C shape; the bones of the spine are also slightly twisted or rotated.. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis appears during the adolescent growth spurt, a time when children are. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of idiopathic scoliosis and the most common type of scoliosis overall. Progressive curvature may be predicted by a combination of physiologic and skeletal maturity factors and curve magnitude. Small curves in more mature patients have a substantially lower risk of progression (~2%) than. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Spine - Orthobullets. Jun 02, 2021 · Defined as idiopathic scoliosis in children 10 to 18 yrs. most common type of scoliosis. Epidemiology. incidence of 3% for curves between 10 to 20°. incidence of 0.3% for curves > 30°. 10:1 female to male ratio for curves > 30°. 1:1 male to female ratio for &NA; Correct identification of fusion levels in surgical planning for the management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex task. Several classification systems and algorithms exist to assist surgeons in determining the appropriate levels to be instrumented. The Lenke classification is the benchmark system. Among the many factors and measurements that are taken into account when.
.S. are diagnosed with scoliosis each year. The majority of these children are diagnosed between the ages of 10 and 15 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Identifying idiopathic scoliosis at birth or in early childhood is rare. The type of scoliosis is generally categorized by age at onset of diagnosis. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis 28 9: Ankylosing Spondylitis 25 10: Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures 25 11: Odontoid Fracture 20 12: Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fracture 19. 3 Adolescent idiopathic Scoliosis Anatomy/physiology 1-3% EMG 1.50% variants 1.50% Neuromuscular scoliosis 2.25 Congenital Scoliosis 2.25 Scheuermann's Kyphosis Neuromuscular 0.5-1.5% stroke 0.25% cerebral palsy 0.25% traumatic brain injury 0.25% tetraplegia 0.25% Charcot-Marie-Tooth 0.25% amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 0.25% Congenital Muscular. A retrospective review was performed of patients from two pediatric hospitals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent selective posterior thoracic fusion with the LIV at L2 or above from 2000 to 2012. Patients with less than 2 years' follow-up were excluded Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis. Diagnosed between ages of 4 to 10, this category makes up about 10% to 15% of all idiopathic scoliosis in children. Younger children: Boys are affected slightly more than girls and the curve is often left-sided. Older children: Condition resembles adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with a predominance of girls and.
Summary. Idiopathic scoliosis is a deformity of the spine characterized by lateral deflection and rotation of the vertebral bodies.The disease typically presents in patients 10-12 years of age and is seen more commonly in girls. The most common pattern of scoliosis is a right convex curvature of the thoracic spine, resulting in forward rotation and protrusion of the right shoulder Image source: orthobullets.com. According to Dr. Joseph Yazdi, the cause of adolescent scoliosis is generally unknown, which then can be referred to as idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis in teens is not usually diagnosed due to pain, rather through routine physical exams
Congenital scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that is caused by a defect that is present at birth. It is much less common than the type of scoliosis that begins in adolescence. Children with congenital scoliosis sometimes have other health issues, such as kidney or bladder problems Idiopathic scoliosis: The Harms Study Group treatment guide. New York: Thieme; 2011. Google Scholar  Lenke LG, Betz RR, Haher TR, et al. Multisurgeon assessment of surgical decision-making in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: curve classification, operative approach, and fusion levels. Spine 2001;26:2347-53 , its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, and prognosis
Introduction. Evidence of compromised pulmonary function in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been well established , .In particular, performances on pulmonary function tests (PFTs), such as forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), have demonstrated negative correlations with increasing Cobb angle , , Adolescent Blount's Disease Genu Valgum (knocked knees) Fibular Deficiency (anteromedial bowing) Anterolateral Bowing & Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of Posteromedial . Limb-length discrepancy 1-2% 2% 3 Tibial Bowing. Spine 10-14% Idiopathic scoliosis 0.5-1% 1% 1.5 Kyphosis 0.5-1% 1% 1.5 Cervical spine, torticollis, instability, congenital. Preventing Distal Junctional Kyphosis by Applying the Stable Sagittal Vertebra Concept to Selective Thoracic Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Joshua Yang, Lindsay M. Andras, Alexander M. Broom, Nicholas R. Gonsalves, Kody K. Barrett, Andrew G. Georgiadis, John M. Flynn, Vernon T. Tolo, David L. Skaggs Shop high-quality unique Infantile Scoliosis Orthobullets T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and everyone Spine⎪Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis 21 nov 2019 · The Orthobullets Podcast In this episode, we review the high-yield topic of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis from the Spine section
See Types of Scoliosis Braces . It should also be noted that bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is different and focuses on preventing the curve from progressing, whereas bracing for degenerative scoliosis is solely to reduce back pain. See Bracing Treatment for Idiopathic Scoliosis . Manual manipulation As a pediatric orthopedic surgeon, I specialize in conditions concerning the musculoskeletal system in infants, children, and adolescents, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.My treatment procedures cover a wide variety of children's conditions including limb deficiency and deformity, trauma/fractures, sports injuries, tumor/oncology, and spinal deformities such as scoliosis Back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: epidemiological study for 43,630 pupils in Niigata City, Japan. [physio-pedia.com] Natural history of untreated idiopathic scoliosis after skeletal maturity: symposium on epidemiology, natural history and non-operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Spine. 1986;11:784-789 . If your child has scoliosis our certified Schroth therapists can help treat and teach your child how to counteract the imbalances caused from the abnormal curvature of the spine
Adolescent Blount's Disease Genu Valgum (knocked knees) tibial bowing Fibular Deficiency (anteromedial bowing) Anterolateral Bowing & Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of Tibia Posteromedial Tibial Bowing Limb-length discrepancy 1-2% 2% 3 Spine 10-14% Idiopathic scoliosis 0.5-1% 1% 1.5 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis King Classification of AI Reading Text Reading Journals Miller's Review (7th Ed) Skeletal Trauma: Chapters 9, 11 JAAOS (2009): Timing of fracture fixation in multitrauma patients: the role of early total care an Neuromuscular scoliosis is an irregular spinal curvature caused by disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and muscular system. Nerves and muscles are unable to maintain appropriate balance / alignment of the spine and trunk. Neuromuscular curves are often associated with pelvic obliquity, a condition in which the child's pelvis is unevenly tilted.
Lenke Classification System for Scoliosis. Scoliosis is described as a C- or S-shaped abnormal curve of the spine. The curve may bend to the left or right sides. The abnormal curvature is usually apparent when looking at the patient from the front or the back. For years the treatment of scoliosis focused on the frontal curve There was an increase in mean annual incidence of spinal deformity surgery across the study period from 9.6 (7.2 to 11.7) per 100,000 individuals in 2005 to 2008, to 17.9 (16.1 to 21.5) per 100,000 individuals in 2015 to 2018 (p = 0.001). The most common cause of spinal deformity was idiopathic scoliosis accounting for 56.7% of patients High quality Scoliosis Awareness gifts and merchandise. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours The Schroth Method is a conservative form of scoliosis treatment designed to target the flexible, postural component of scoliosis. The method was created in Germany in the 1920's by Katharina Schroth as a way to treat her own scoliosis. Since then the method has made its way across the globe, only recently in the US
Surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex undertaking that requires a multidisciplinary team .Multiple studies have shown that increasing surgeon volume and experience correlates with improved outcomes for adolescent spine deformity surgery [2,3,4].Furthermore, high-volume centers have been associated with better outcomes for AIS surgery than lower volume. Prior research has indicated adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients have lower bone mineral density and lower vitamin D levels than healthy peers. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with higher levels of pain. This study investigated whether vitamin D-deficient AIS patients had higher pain before or immediately after posterior spine fusion (PSF) surgery. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D. Multi media presentation involving Gastrocnemius contracture. The test described to differentiate gastrocnemius versus soleus contracture is called the Silverskold test. Assess ankle dorsiflexion with hip and knee extension. Then assess ankle dorsiflexion with hip and knee in flexion, if there is an improvement in dorsiflexion, a gastrocnemius contracture is said to be present The patient with Piriformis syndrome may present with complaints of deep pain in buttock and posterior thigh. Pain may also radiate to posterior aspect of leg due to irritation of sciatic nerve. Diagnostic tests include-. 1)Laseguer's maneuver (stretching of the nerve) - the pain is reproduced on flexing the hip to 90 degree and extending knee
Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis; About five percent of the population suffers from Scheuermann's kyphosis. Those who have it generally are neurologically normal, which means they do not have any nerves in the spine that have been damaged by the deformity. However, the disorder can cause decreased lung and cardiac functions This study aims to evaluate if standing in the Schroth trained position influences radiographic assessment of Cobb angle compared to a normal standing position. This is a retrospective review of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who were participating in Schroth therapy at the time of radiographs Adult idiopathic scoliosis is, in essence, a continuation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Sometimes a spine curvature of an idiopathic (cause not known) nature that began during teenage years may progress during adult life. Curves may increase in size 0.5° to 2° per year. Adolescent curves less than 30° are unlikely to progress. Scoliosis, together with kyphosis (a forward-oriented, rather than sideways curvature), composes a majority spinal deformity cases seen and treated by pediatric orthopedists.. Forms of scoliosis in children and teenagers. Pediatric scoliosis is diagnosed as one of several types: Idiopathic scoliosis is a curvature of unknown origin.; Congenital scoliosis is present at birth Martin-Gruber Anastomosis is median to ulnar anastomosis in the forearm. It occurs through a communicating nerve branch between the median nerve and the ulnar nerve in the forearm. This connection carries motor nerve fibers. It can be confusing clinically and also on EMG. It has clinical significance for understanding the median nerve lesion.
STRUCTURAL scoliosis (bone deep) is when there is an actual 'structural' / physical curve in the spine. It develops as a result of unequal growth of the two sides of the vertebral bodies. It typically appears during adolescence, the causes are generally not known (80% - idiopathic). A structural curvature is a misalignment of the bones of. Washington University orthopedic doctors are national experts in orthopedic conditions, including adult and pediatric orthopedics at Barnes-Jewish and St Louis Children's Hospitals. Treating musculoskeletal conditions including sports medicine, hip resurfacing, spinal deformity, hip and knee joint replacement Congenital scoliosis does not seem to run in families. Genetic studies to date have not yielded much evidence that this condition can be inherited. Although congenital scoliosis is often discovered during the infant or toddler period, in some children it does not diagnosed until their adolescent years
. The spine may also be rotated or twisted, pulling the ribs along with it to form a multidimensional curve. Congenital scoliosis occurs in only 1 in 10,000 newborns and is much less common than idiopathic scoliosis, which. Prolonged narcotic use in this study was defined as opioid use at their first postoperative visit. Methods: AIS patients age 11 to 20 years undergoing posterior spinal fusion and a parent were prospectively enrolled. At the preoperative appointment, patients completed the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and parents completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. High parental anxiety was. The Risser classification is used to grade skeletal maturity based on the level of ossification and fusion of the iliac crest apophyses.It is primarily in planning corrective surgery for scoliosis.. Classification. stage 0: no ossification center at the level of iliac crest apophysis stage 1: apophysis under 25% of the iliac crest stage 2: apophysis over 25-50% of the iliac cres on October 23, 2020. Cobb angle is a measurement of the degree of side-to-side spinal curvature, which is a deformity you may know as scoliosis. A Cobb angle describes the maximum distance from straight a scoliotic curve may be. Generally, it takes at least 10 degrees of deviation from straight before scoliosis is defined
Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis occurs in children age 10 to 18 years, and comprises approximately 80% of all cases of idiopathic scoliosis. This age range is when rapid growth typically occurs, which is why scoliosis in teenagers should be monitored closely for progression as the child's skeleton develops Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is potentially fatal if untreated. The progressive spinal curvature leads to a worsening chest wall deformity, which can result in restrictive lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale, and cardiopulmonary failure [1,2,3].The goals of treatment of EOS are to control the spinal and chest wall deformity while optimizing pulmonary function, maximizing growth. The current understanding of scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine and the diagnosis is considered when the Cobb angle is measuring at least 10° or more in the frontal plane radiograph [1,2,3].Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis and constitutes 80% of scoliosis cases [4, 5], with incidence of 0.5-3% in the adolescent population, females are more. Figure 1: Congenital kyphosis at the junction of the thoracic and lumbar spine. In the first six to eight weeks of embryonic life, a genetic mistake occurs that results in the failure of formation or failure of segmentation on the front part of one or more vertebral bodies and disc. This defect causes the spine to develop a sharp forward.
Scoliosis Patient Interviews Videos. Watch inspirational stories from patients who have worn a brace or had spinal surgery may help you and others like yourself find the support and comfort you need. Click on the button below to explore more scoliosis patients interview videos. Watch Patient Interview PLIF, ALIF and TLIF Procedures Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure in which two or more vertebrae are joined or fused together. Fusion surgeries typically require the use of bone graft to facilitate fusion. This involves taking small amounts of bone from the patient's pelvic bone (autograft), or from a donor (allograft), and then packin Shop high-quality unique Scoliosis Exercises T-Shirts designed and sold by artists. Available in a range of colours and styles for men, women, and everyone
The Cobb angle is named after the American orthopedic surgeon John Robert Cobb (1903-1967), was originally used to measure coronal plane deformity on radiographs with antero - posterior projection for the classification of scoliosis. It has subsequently been adapted to classify sagittal plane deformity, especially in the setting of traumatic. Scoliosis Research Society - SRS.org. Spine-Health.com. Glossary. idiopathic scoliosis: abnormal spine curvature in teens due to genetics or bone growth. degenerative scoliosis: abnormal spine curvature in adults due to aging of discs and joints. updated > 9.2018 reviewed by > Robert Bohinski, MD, PhD, and Zachary Tempel, MD, Mayfield Clinic. They put Norrin in a school that used applied behavioral analysis, or ABA, the longest-standing and best-established form of therapy for children Get the latest news. Imagine not being allowed to do harmless things, such as tapping your foot or express happiness. The problem with Applied Behavior Analysis I have been in the field for a few years and in about a year or 2 I will be eligible. Scoliosis (plural: scolioses) is defined as an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.It is quite common in young individuals and is often idiopathic and asymptomatic. In some cases, however, it is the result of underlying structural or neurological abnormalities The prevalence of back pain in children who have idiopathic scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79(3):364-368. Nachemson AL, Peterson LE. Effectiveness of treatment with a brace in girls who have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A prospective, controlled study based on data from the Brace Study of the Scoliosis Research Society