Papovavirus genome

The genome of human papovavirus BKV - PubMe

Monkey B-lymphotropic papovavirus genome: the entire DNA

  1. Papovaviruses are small, nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses that contain circular, Viral particles range in diameter from 45 to 55 nm. the DNA has a molecular weight of 3 × 106to 5 × 106. Two or three polypeptides are used to construct the icosahedra
  2. The overall organization of the viral genome is different from that of other related papovaviruses (SV40, BKV, polyoma). Firstly, genetic information seems to be coded by one strand. Secondly, no significant homology is found with SV40 or polyoma coding sequence for either DNA or deducted protein sequences
  3. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small, non-enveloped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus that infects skin or mucosal cells. The circular, double-stranded viral genome is approximately 8-kb in length. The genome encodes for 6 early proteins responsible for virus replication and 2 late proteins, L1 and L2, which are the viral structural proteins
  4. Parvoviruses are a family of animal viruses that constitute the family Parvoviridae. They have linear, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genomes that typically contain two genes encoding for a replication initiator protein, called NS1, and the protein the viral capsid is made of
  5. Learn about papovavirus topic of Biology in details explained by subject experts on vedantu.com. Register free for online tutoring session to clear your doubts
  6. SV40 is an abbreviation for simian vacuolating virus 40 or simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans.Like other polyomaviruses, SV40 is a DNA virus that has the potential to cause tumors in animals, but most often persists as a latent infection. SV40 has been widely studied as a model eukaryotic virus, leading to many early discoveries in eukaryotic DNA.

With the replication origin used as a reference point, the B-lymphotropic papovavirus genome was aligned with the genomes of simian virus 40 and BK virus from DNA homology between specific fragments hybridized under low-stringency conditions The genome of MG virus, a variant of the human papovavirus BK virus, consists of two molecules, M1 and M2, M1 and M2 have deletions which correspond to 0.33 to 0.55 map unit and 0.77 to 0.85 map unit, respectively, from the EcoRI site on the BK virus genome

Hallmarks of the hepadnavirus replication cycle are the formation of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and the reverse transcription of a pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) in core particles leading to synthesis of the relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA) genome. cccDNA, the template for viral RNA transcription, is the basis for the persistence of these viruses in infected hepatocytes Polyomaviruses are non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses with circular genomes of around 5000 base pairs. The genome is packaged in a viral capsid of about 40-50 nanometers in diameter, which is icosahedral in shape (T=7 symmetry)

TAg is a product of an early gene transcribed during viral infection by SV40, and is involved in viral genome replication and regulation of host cell cycle. SV40 is a double-stranded, circular DNA virus belonging to the Polyomaviridae (earlier Papovavirus) family, Orthopolyomavirus genus The estimated genome size of 5.52 kb for HaPV DNA is approx. 300 bases larger than those determined for other known papovaviruses as SV40 or polyoma. Similar Articles To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation Primary cultures of lungs, kidneys, and glial cells derived from midgestation Syrian hamsters were inoculated with 10(5) hemagglutinating units of murine K-papovavirus and were serially subcultivated to allow appearance of lines of persistently infected or transformed cells. K virus did not replicat Papovavirus, any virus in the families Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae.Papovaviruses are responsible for a variety of abnormal growths in animals: warts (papillomas) in humans, dogs, and other animals; cervical cancer in women; tumours (polyomas) in mice; and vacuoles (open areas) in cells of monkeys. The virus particle is about 45 nm (1 nm=10 −9 metre) in diameter

The prototype sequence of MCV has a 5387 base pair double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome and encodes characteristic polyomavirus genes from opposite strands including a large T antigen, a small T antigen (LT and sT, respectively, from early strand) and viral capsid proteins VP1 and VP2/3 genes (from late strand) In studies involving papovaviruses SV40, BK virus (BKV), and JC virus (JCV), one of the primary targets for analysis is the viral regulatory region, as that section of the papovavirus genome is distinct. A primary concern with PCR-based studies is whether amplified DNA sequences may be derived from laboratory contaminants About Parvovirus B19. Parvovirus B19 infects only humans. You can have a range of symptoms depending on your age and overall health. About two out of 10 people who get infected with this virus will have no symptoms. Others may have only mild, rash illness A number of hybridization techniques have been used to assess the homology between the genomes of BK virus (BKV) and simian virus 40 (SV40). A noncontiguous set of homologous sequences has been localized primarily within the late region of the SV40 genome, and these sequences presumably account for the cross-reaction between V-antigens of the two viruses host cell genome. In three of the patients with PML, viral DNA was also found in liver, lung, lymph node, and spleen. Two of these patients, with widely disseminated JC virus, were children. In tissues from patients without PML, no evidence of JC virus in-fection was found, but BK papovavirus DNA was detected in two of 14 kidneys tested

The superhelical DNA of the HD papovavirus is heterogeneous and consists of two discrete size classes with molecular weights of 3.45 X 10(6) and 3.25 X 10(6). Both size classes of DNA are encapsidated into HD virion particles. Their relative intracellular amounts differ, depending on the cell system. Vero-76 carrier cultures in which HD virus was detected contain both size classes of DNA, with. 250 Structures of Papovavirus Capsids multiply in the nucleus of the infected cell. They carry a double-stranded, circular DNA genome that associates with host-encoded histones in the virions. However, papillomaviruses (e.g. bovine, cottontail rabbit, and human papillomaviruses) and poly-omaviruses (e.g. murine polyomavirus and simia Papovaviruses Figure 13 Structure and genome organization of the papo- vavirus simian virus 40. (A) The virion. (Left) Electron mi- crograph of negatively stained simian virus 40 virions. Magnification, From F. A. Andered et al., Virology 1967, with permission. (Right) Diagram of the virion, showing the names and locations of virion protein papovavirus chromatin in a biologically important region of the genome. MATERIALS AND METHODS Virus and Cells. SV40 strain Rh 911 was grown on CV-1 cells as described (13). Propagation of polyoma virus and infection of 3T6 cells were carried out as described (14). For isolation of nucleoprotein complexes the cells were infected at a multi The animal viruses with DNA genomes have been classified into five groups—parvoviruses, papovaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses, and poxviruses—in order of increasing complexity (Melnick, 1974). Each of these virus groups have unique features which provide favorable experimental material for the investigator. The papovaviruses and adenoviruses have been especially useful in the study of.

Papovavirus group, in the Papillomavirus family and, possibly, the Alphapapillomavirus genus 1. SPV is a small, non-enveloped, double-stranded circular DNA virus with a genome that encodes eight to ten proteins. The virus is sexually transmitted and causes a benign disease known as transmissible genital papilloma in swine. 2, Since the parvoviral genome is a single-stranded DNA, no special polymerases are necessary for replication, thus even naked viral nucleic acid is infectious. This single copy of DNA is initially. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious viral disease of dogs that commonly causes acute gastrointestinal illness in puppies. The disease most often strikes in pups between six and 20 weeks old, but older animals are sometimes also affected. A rare variant of the disease may be seen in very young (neonatal) puppies is myocarditis (an inflammation of the heart muscle) The twelve pentameric vertices are composed of five copies each of VP1. A depression, or canyon, in the structure is the region that provides the specific binding site for attachment to cells. After attachment, receptor-mediated endocytosis begins, and this leads to the RNA genome of the virus getting into the cytoplasm

BK virus (BKV), originally described in 1971 [1], is a 5kb polyomavirus which shares roughly 75% of its DNA sequence with JC virus (JCV). Nearly 80% of the population is seropositive for these viruses [2, 5-6]. Although BKV disseminates into the urinary tract and kidneys, it usually remains latent [2]. However, immunocompromised patients, such as those undergoing kidney or multiple organ. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses (genome size: 34-43 kb; virion size: 70-90 nm), first discovered in the human adenoid tissue in 1953 by Rowe and his colleagues

genome is similar to that of the other three papillomaviruses already sequenced. The amino acid sequences of the putative viral proteins were compared to the available protein data banks. Of particular interest is the homology found between the COOH terminus of the E2 putative protein of the differen Papovaviruses (SV40) genome is a ds circular DNA: Figure 17. If the host cell is permissive < lytic infection . if host cell is nonpermissive, viral DNA may become integrated into host DNA < transformed cells . SV40 DNA replicates in the nucleus, proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm but go back to the nucleus for assembly of the virions B-lymphotropic papovavirus M30540 and African green monkey polyomavirus NC_004763 sequence annotations for VP1 and LT genes, respectively. genome by PCR and analysis of its sequence of 5,028 nt by using the Sanger method, which confi rmed the circular nature of the genome genome assumes a chromatin-like structure in association with four cellular histone proteins, H2A, H2B, H3 & H4, similar to that of the host cell genome. Viral Genome Packaging • Papovaviruses -incorporate cellular histones, to form 20-25 nucleosomes. Genome Packaging in M1 The genome of the virus isolated from the normal individual was indistinguishable from prototype BKV except for a 60‐base pair deletion, which was localized between 0.62 and 0.72 map units. Two isolates from transplant patients differed from each other and from prototype BKV at a number of restriction enzyme cleavage sites located in the.

Three types of papovaviruses (JC, BK, and SV40) have been isolated from man. All three are oncogenic in hamsters, cause frequent infection of man, and share a common T antigen. Augmentation of the expression of T antigen by in vitro cultivation of SV40-induced tumors of hamsters suggested that growing human brain tumors in vitro might provide. Polyomaviridae is a family of nonenveloped viruses with a circular double-stranded DNA genome. The matrixes were based on monkey B-lymphotropic papovavirus M30540 and African green monkey polyomavirus NC_004763 sequence annotations for VP1 and LT genes, respectively A lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) archetypal regulatory region was amplified from DNA from the blood of an immunocompromised rhesus monkey. We believe this is the first nonserological evidence of LPV infection in rhesus monkeys References 5. Higuchi R: 1989, Rapid, efficient DNA extraction for PCR from cells or blood. Amplifications 2:1-3. 6. Kibenge FSB, Jackwood DJ, Mercado CC: 1990, Nucleotide sequence analysis of genome segment A of infectious bursal disease virus. J Gen Virol 71:569-577. 7. Kusukawa N, Uemori T, Asada K, Kato I: 1990, Rapid and reliable protocol for direct sequencing of material amplified by the.

Physical maps of the genomes of the two newly discovered primate papovaviruses, SA12 and stump-tailed macaque virus (STMV), were generated by restriction endonuclease analysis. The base sequence homologies among the genomes of SA12, stump-tailed macaque virus, and simian virus 40 (SV40) were studied by heteroduplex analysis enzymes to dissect the genome of a small papovavirus and learn something about how the virus works . . . and perhaps learn something about what genes are required for trans-formation.1 Dan returned to Hopkins with some radiolabeled SV40 DNA in his luggage, and he set about testing his ideas changes can result from integration of the viral genome into the host cell genome. 5 Herpesviruses (a Papovavirus) being the causative agent of cervical cancer is far better. Papovaviruses The family name Papovavirus comes from the 3 prototypical members of. n., pl. -rus•es. any of a group of small DNA-containing viruses of the family Papovaviridae, most of which produce tumors. [1962; pa (pilloma) + po (lyoma) a tumor-inducing virus ( poly- + -oma) + va (cuolating) (representing three virus groups in the order in which they became known) + virus] Random House Kernerman Webster's College. The major structural protein (VP1) of the BK polyomavirus (BKV) was expressed in the recombinant baculovirus expression system. Recombinant BKV VP1 was shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) with a diameter of 45-50 nm. As for othe

Physical maps of the genomes of the two newly discovered primate papovaviruses, SA12 and stump-tailed macaque virus (STMV), were generated by restriction endonuclease analysis. The base sequence homologies among the genomes of SA12, stump-tailed macaque virus, and simian virus 40 (SV40) were studied by heteroduplex analysis. Heteroduplexes between SA12 and SV40 DNAs and stump-tailed macaque. The papovaviruses have a circular genome. The transforminggg y region of the polyoma virus codes for three proteins (large, middle and small T antigens). The large T antigen elicits indefinite growth and diminishes the requirement for growth factors in serum The middle Trequirement for growth factors in serum. The middle Papovavirus definition: any of the animal viruses that cause papillomas or polyomas | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and example of viral genome fragments derived with restrictive enzymes has greatly contributed to our present understanding of the relation of genome structure and function in simian virus 40 (SV40) studied as a prototype of the papovavirus family. These studies have led to a recognition of early and late gene functions, location of initiation sites of DN The genome profiling (GP) method, which was developed in the field of bioengineering in 2000 by Nishigaki et al. [1 Nishigaki K, Naimuddin M, Hamano K. Genome profiling: a realistic solution for genotype-based identification of species J Biochem 2000; 128(1): 107-12

Synonyms for Papovaviridae in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Papovaviridae. 4 words related to papovavirus: animal virus, human papilloma virus, polyoma, polyoma virus. What are synonyms for Papovaviridae BKV DNA, like SV40 DNA, is a supercoiled genome cleaved at one unique site by the RI restriction endonucle-ase, EcoRI(6, 7, 21, 22). DigestionofBKVDNAwiththere-striction endonuclease prepared from Hemophilus influen-zae (Hind) yields four DNAfragments (7), whereas diges-tion of SV40DNAyields 11 fragments (13). DNA-DNAhy Examples include most bacteriophages, Papovaviruses, Adenoviruses, and Herpesviruses. Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Replication of a Double-Stranded DNA Viral Genome and production of Viral mRNA. To replicate the viral genome, DNA-dependent DNA polymerase enzymes copy both the (+) and (-) DNA strands producing dsDNA viral genomes papovavirus: [ pah-po´vah-vi″rus ] any member of a group of small ether-resistant DNA viruses; this term is no longer used in official viral nomenclature. The species that infect humans are all papillomaviruses The papovaviruses have a circular genome. The transforming region of the polyoma virus codes for three proteins (large, middle and small T antigens). The large T antigen elicits indefinite growth and diminishes the requirement for growth factors in serum. The middle T antigen is necessary for the maintenance of transformation. The small T-antige

Arrangement of the genome of the human papovavirus RF virus

Arenavirus, any virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae. The name of the family is derived from the Latin arenosus, meaning sandy, which describes the grainy appearance of arenavirus ribosomes (protein-synthesizing particles). Arenaviruses have spherical, enveloped virions (virus particles Flavivirus, any virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses have enveloped and spherical virions (virus particles) that are between 40 and 60 nm (1 nm = 10−9 metre) in diameter. The flavivirus genome consists of nonsegmented single-stranded positive-sense RNA (ribonucleic acid) oncogenic virus: any virus capable of inducing tumors. The RNA tumor viruses (family Retroviridae ), which are well defined and rather homogeneous, or the DNA viruses, which contain a number of viruses capable of inducing tumors, including poxviruses, herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, and polyomavirus. Synonym(s): tumor viru Phillip A. Sharp Biographical A sense of place was and remains an important part of my life. I was born in a rural community in the northern hill country of Kentucky. My earliest memories are those of a child playing around the house on our family farm, located in a bend of the Licking River near McKinneysburg Papovaviruses include human papillomaviruses (HPV) and polyomaviruses. Papillomaviruses cause various types of cervical cancer and papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes, such as plantar warts and genital warts (condyloma acuminata). There is now an HPV vaccine that is protective against HPV-6,11,16 and 18

Seif I, Khoury G, Dhar R: The genome of human papovavirus BKV. Cell 1979, 18: 963-977. 10.1016/0092-8674(79)90209-5. PubMed CAS Article Google Scholar 26. Yang RC, Wu R: BK virus DNA: complete nucleotide sequence of a human tumor virus. Science 1979, 206: 456-462. 10.1126/science.22839 DNA TUMOR VIRUSES The papovaviruses have a circular genome. The transforming region of the polyoma virus codes for three proteins (large, middle and small T antigens). The large T antigen elicits indefinite growth and diminishes the requirement for growth factors in serum. The middle T antigen is necessary for the maintenance of transformation

Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines lectively referred to as papovaviruses, have a nonenveloped icosahedral capsid surrounding a double-stranded circular DNA genome. The structural proteins of polyomavirus (VP1, VP2, and VP3) and papillomavirus (L1 and L2) are synthe-sized late in viral infection and imported into the nucleus, where they assemble around newly synthesized viral. HPVs are nonenveloped viruses of the papovavirus family. The virion is approximately 50 nm in diameter and the genome is comprised of a ds DNA molecule of approximately 8 kb. The capsid is made up.

bacterial virus: [ vi´rus ] any member of a unique class of infectious agents, which were originally distinguished by their smallness (hence, they were described as filtrable because of their ability to pass through fine ceramic filters that blocked all cells, including bacteria) and their inability to replicate outside of and without. The Genome of Human Papovavirus BKV lsabelle Seif, George Khoury and Ravi Dhar Laboratory of Molecular Virology National Cancer Institute Bethesda, Maryland 20205 Summary The complete DNA sequence of human papovavirus BKV(Dun), consisting of 5153 nucleotide pairs, is presented. We describe the segments of the ge The complete DNA sequence of human papovavirus BKV(Dun), consisting of 5153 nucleotide pairs, is presented. We describe the segments of the genome which correspond to the replication origin, the tandem repeated sequences, the 5′ and 3′ ends of the mRNAs, the splice sites, the early and late viral proteins and the putative viral polypeptides Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is a small circular double-stranded DNA genome virus that belongs to Papillomaviridae family, which presents tropism for epithelial and mucous tissues. The BPV genome is divided in three regions: early (E), late (L), and long codon region (LCR), with an average size of 8 kilobases.The E region codifies proteins necessary to virus replication, including the E5, E6.

Characterization of the genome of the murine papovavirus K

The genome of PCV2 contains at least four open reading frames (ORFs). I., Rasch, R. & Tochtermann, G. Characterization of papovavirus-and picornavirus-like particles in permanent pig kidney. You should know the genome and viral structure of papovaviruses. You should know the significance of Dr. Papanicolaou's procedure and its link to papovaviridae. Adenoviridae. You should understand the viral structure and genome of adenovirues. You should know the major clinical manifestations of adenoviruses. Herpesvirida that belongs to the papovavirus family (papilloma, polyoma, and simian vacuolating viruses).27 Papilloma viruses are ubiquitous in viral genome into the patient's genome.The E2 gene is often the site for integration, resulting in disruption of the E2 gene and subsequen HPV is a sexually transmitted infection. HPV stands for human papillomavirus. It's very common. Many people don't have any symptoms, and the infection might go away on its own. But some types of.

quences at unusual sites in the genome and by the associated likelihood that gene expression from such ectopic transgenes is unlikely to beregulated faithfully Define lymphotropic papovavirus. lymphotropic papovavirus synonyms, lymphotropic papovavirus pronunciation, lymphotropic papovavirus translation, English dictionary definition of lymphotropic papovavirus. n. pl. pa·po·va·vi·rus·es A former family of DNA viruses that included the papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. American Heritage. Papovaviruses as vehicles for the transduction of foreign genes into mammalian cells. P Upcroft, Ziemer F, H Skolnik, George C. Fareed Genome Structures of reiteration mutants of simian virus 40 1. Genome of hepatitis B is circular and partially double stranded; it is replicated in the nucleus. 2. Genome is converted to a closed circular molecule by a DNA polymerase which is virion packaged. 3. Two classes of RNA species are produced: one that codes for viral proteins and one that serves to produce genomic DNA by The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies viruses into families, genera and species and provides a regulated system for their nomenclature that is universally used in virus descriptions. Virus taxonomic assignments have traditionally been based upon virus phenotypic properties such as host range, virion morphology and replication mechanisms, particularly at family level

Plant and animal viruse

Papovaviruses - Medical Microbiology - NCBI Bookshel

Papovaviruses are a family of small, non-enveloped viruses of similar morphology that contain circular double-stranded DNA. They are divided into the two genera polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses on the basis of genome size and biological properties. Human polyomaviruses comprise two agents, JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) Papovavirus definition is - any of a former family (Papovaviridae) of double-stranded DNA viruses that included the papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses The genome is defective in one or more of the and c-Src proteins makes the generation of anti-Src antibodies more difficult than the generation of antibodies against papovavirus T antigens.

Virus: Structure and Symmetry

Human papillomavirus 1a complete DNA sequence: a novel

The important DNA viruses that effect humans include the herpes viruses, the pox viruses, the adenoviruses and the papovaviruses. Again the details of their replication is not a suitable topic of this course. This double strand copy of the viral genome is then incorporated into the host cell DNA (Fig. 1 & 3) An organism's genome is the complete set of genes and genetic instructions needed to make that organism. These genetic instructions are encoded in the DNA that is stored in the nucleus of nearly. Papovavirus definition, any of a group of DNA-containing human and animal viruses, including polyoma viruses and some papillomaviruses, most of which produce tumors. See more Studies of polymorphisms of genetic pathways with strong prior hypotheses are being planned, and whole-genome scans are being proposed to study high-risk families and case-control series 1. Protect genome from atmosphere (May include damaging UV-light, shearing forces, nucleases either leaked or secreted by cells). 2. Virus-attachment protein- interacts with cellular receptor to initiate infection. 3. Delivery of genome in infectious form. May simply dump genome into cytoplasm (most +ssRNA viruses) or serve a

JC virus

WHO Human Papillomaviru

minus. Related Pages. Adenoviruses are common viruses that cause a range of illness. They can cause cold-like symptoms, fever, sore throat, bronchitis, pneumonia, diarrhea, and pink eye (conjunctivitis). You can get an adenovirus infection at any age. People with weakened immune systems or existing respiratory or cardiac disease are more likely. Viruses are biological entities that can only thrive and multiply in a host, which is a living organism such as a human, an animal, or a plant. Some viruses cause disease. For example, severe. The human genome contains approximately 50 copies of ERV-9 along with 3000-4000 copies of solitary elements of ERV-9 regulatory regions, called long terminal repeats (LTRs) papovavirus. [ pah-po´vah-vi″rus] any member of a group of small ether-resistant DNA viruses; this term is no longer used in official viral nomenclature. The species that infect humans are all papillomaviruses Papovaviruses All human papilloma viruses Paramyxoviruses Newcastle disease virus Measles virus Mumps virus Parainfluenza viruses types 1, 2, 3, and 4 of their respective parental viral genome and that have been demonstrated to be free of detectable replication competent retrovirus can be maintained, handled, and administered, under BL1.

PPT - Virus Structure & Classification PowerPointHuman Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer33

human papilloma virus. n. (Pathology) any one of a class of viruses that cause tumours, including warts, in humans. Certain strains infect the cervix and have been implicated as a cause of cervical cancer. Abbreviation: HPV My laboratory showed that cells, oncogenically transformed by DNA and RNA viruses, contained as few as one to five integrated copies of the viral genome. We subsequently generated the first genomic maps of the BK and JC human papovaviruses and the first transcriptional map of an animal virus (SV40) Human Papillomavirus (HPV) HPV is a group of more than 200 viruses, and at least a dozen of them can cause cancer. HPV can spread during vaginal or anal sex. HPV often goes away on its own and. Papovavirus-based shuttle vectors containing the bacterial lacI gene were used to show that a mutation frequency in the range of 1% occurs in lacI when such vectors are transfected into COS7 and CV-1 simian cells, NIH 3T3, 3T6, L, and C127 mouse cells, and human 293 and HeLa cells Formation of tumors in a rabbit following inoculation with BPV-1 is reported and represents the first evidence of BPV-induced tumorogenesis in this animal species. The BPV-1 transformed and tumor cells are characterized with respect to the quantity and physical state of the BPV-1 genome in the cells